Tribal Panchasheel Policy 

  • Nehruvian policy 
  • Rejects both forced Assimilation as well as Isolationist Approach  
  • 5 points
    • Seeks development by the tribal’s own “Genius”
      • No compulsion from outside 
    • Respect tribal rights of land & forest  
    • Encourage tribal language 
    • For administration, reliance should be on tribal people themselves. Inclusion of tribals in administration  
    • No over administration – Decentralisation through own cultural institutions  

XAXA committee – Limited improvements in conditions of tribes  

Editing required 

Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups are under 2008 special scheme of most vulnerable among STs. 

75 such PVTG 


There are five PVTGs in the Andaman islands such as Great Andamanese, Jarawas, Onges, Sentineles and Shom Pens 

1. Their classification as a special group came in 1973 with setting up of Debhar commission to develop them on par with the rest of STs. 

2. They need identification as,PVTGs are more vulnerable among the tribal groups.More developed tribal groups take a major chunk of the tribal development funds as they are relatively aware of schemes and avail them owing to be more literate then PVTGs. 

Characteristically they are: 

1. Homogenous,have small population(Least of Sentinelets 39),  

2. Physically isolated-places they live vary from plains,forests, hills, inaccessible areas etc. PVTGs are scattered in different geographical areas of the country.  

3. Usually there is absence of written language,and they have relatively slow rate of change. 

4. Occupations include: food gathering,non forest timber produce collection,shifting cultivation. 

Social conditions: 

1.Their habitat being mainly natural, the areas they live at times coincide with tourist spots.On one hand they say tourism provides employment to local people on the contrary at times they are subjected to ill-treatment by tourism(say,Jarawa tribe of Andaman-counting 241), 

2. Occupationally since they are mainly connected to natural livelihood,they are severely affected by shrinking forests,environment changes,new forest policies. 

3. PVTGs vary culturally,socio-economical inequalities is very high amongst them.The growth of PVTGs’ population is either stagnating or declining, compared to the general population growth, particularly in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands where the declining rate is very high. 

4. They face ill-treatment when it comes to joining educational institutions,and characteristically being shy they prefer to retreat from enrolling themselves in such social institutions rather then sharing their problems. 

To save the bare minimum population, government needs to check if their schemes are reaching the intended beneficiaries,and if it is,then, why is their rate of development still slow. Development deals not only with modernisng,It also means preserving our culture alongwith.Though Article 339 of the Constitution directs such a commission to be appointed after every 10 years, there have been only two commissions since  

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