Model Answer of Day-1 Sociology optional

Q1. Discuss historical antecedents of the emergence of sociology as a discipline. – UPSC CSE 2019

Solution – sociology as a discipline image first in Europe as a response to the social and intellectual climate prevailing in Europe at that time.

Antecedents of the emergence of sociology are as follows:

Enlightenment period and structural changes in European society: The emergence of sociology can be traced to the period of European history which saw tremendous social political and economic changes as embodied in the French industrial revolution, this period of change is known as the enlightenment period which marks radical changes in traditional thinking of feudal Europe. New classes arouse, the importance of religion started declining, the position of women changed and democracy was heralded in.

Commercial revolution and expansion of Banking:
Overseas discoveries, Europe’s trade with Eastern countries like India and China lead to the growth of Banking which ended late to rise of influential and powerful new merchant class.

Scientific Revolution and Renaissance:
Renaissance period for the beginning of the scientific revolution. It marked an area of description and criticisms in field of science. Interest in research in the fields of physics chemistry biology astronomy and navigation started growing.

French Revolution: The French revolution was a Landmark event that leads to the overthrow of the old order of society. The brands of new legal rights and privileges as well as a new systems of inheritance give people view perspective of society.

Sociology day 1 Model Answer IAS Dada
Sociology day -1 Model Answer (IAS Dada)

Changing social order led to the emergence of new questions in front of sociologists which needed scientific and rational enquiry. Which indeed to new solutions and discipline of sociology.

Industrial revolution:
During the industrial Revolution new tools and techniques for invented which led to mass production of goods. Urbanisation, migration exit related to economic changes which ended resulted into a change in the social fabric.

Problems of Hunger poverty malnutrition condition emerged due to urbanization and migration etc.

All these problems needed modern and innovative solutions based on scientific and national enquiry which was one of the reasons for the emergence of sociology.


Q2. Write a short note on relationship between sociology and anthropology.

Solution – Anthropology science that deals with origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics and social customs as well as beliefs of humankind. Why is sociology study of human societies and social behaviour.

How to sciences differ from each other?

The phenomenon of division of labour which was traditionally developed is studied by sociology in complex modern and urban industrial societies while anthropology studies tribal, preliterate societies of world turtle largely untouched by forces of civilization.

In the beginning, sociology studied their own society while anthropology studied societies other than there’s. And his sociology came to be regarded as a study of one’s own society.

The sociological study tends to be more quantitative, drawing on larger data. Sometimes it’s based on common sense knowledge. It mostly targets society as a whole and not a single individual. But in the case of anthropology different methodologies generating qualitative ethnographic, generating a large amount of archaeological data is essential.

However, due to forces of industrialization, urbanization and globalization situation is now drastically changing tribal and pigeon societies are changing under the influence of Western ideas.

Both disciplines now focus on studying behaviour of humans with their societies and study is multiplicity of cultures and cultural engagement among different race ethnicity and genders. Among contemporary societies, there is a third very important category of those which are neither primitive nor industrially advanced. In such societies, of which India may be taken as an example, the distinction between sociology and social anthropology has little meaning. Sociological research in India, whether it is concerned with the caste system, village communities or the process of industrialization and its effects, is and should be carried out by sociologist and social anthropologists.
And hence it is so often said that though sociology and social anthropology have quite different origins they are indistinguishable.


Q3. Write short note on relationship between sociology and political science.

Political science is a branch of social science that is concerned with theory, description, analysis and prediction of political behaviour, political systems and politics. on the other hand Sociology is the study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life.

How both sciences are different from each other?
Political science mainly studies complex, advanced, and modern societies that have the machinery of state and law. It is mostly concerned with political states.on the other hand, sociology studies all types of societies irrespective of whether they happen to be classified as tribal or present or urban industrial. Sociology also gives information about the distribution of power in those societies which political scientists do not study. For example- Many tribal societies in sub-Saharan Africa are stateless but still, power is evenly distributed and law and order is maintained. The distribution of power is not studied by political science.

Sociology studies different social aspects of society like religion, caste system, marriage, kinship etc. Where is political science restricts itself mainly to study of political system, political behaviour.

Concept power is important in both the sciences. Political science studies behaviour of people in power. Whereas sociology studies power in terms of social context. For e.g processes which enable a man or a group to wield power and exercise dominance in society.

But nevertheless, the political sociology Acer branch of sociology has a long shared history with political science. For e.g, if you look at study of caste system in India and its role in electoral politics and political behavior of people, sociologist can give useful insights to political scientists. This has brought sociology close to political science in particular.

Concept power is important in both the sciences. Political science studies behaviour of people in power. Whereas sociology studies power in terms of social context. For e.g processes which enable a man or a group to wield power and exercise dominance in society.

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